## Target

Solving word problems in mathematics

## Participants

Junior high school students with poor performance on mathematical
word problems

## Technique

Students were required to memorize the names and descriptions of
seven cognitive strategies for solving word problems. The steps to
solve problems were: read (for understanding), paraphrase (your own
words), visualize (a picture or a diagram), hypothesize (a plan to
solve the problem), estimate (predict the answer), compute (do the
arithmetic), and check (make sure that everything is right). In
addition, metacogntive activities (i.e., say, ask, and check) that
accompanied each step were also taught and students paraphrased each
one.

The teacher modeled problem solving using an overhead projector
and students practiced in a variety of ways. They took turns during
the teacher demonstrations, gave their own class demonstrations, and
worked independently and in pairs. Throughout instruction, the
teacher gave corrective feedback. Additionally, supplying the
students with graphs of their gains kept students motivated to
improve their problem solving skills.

## Evaluation

Give students mathematical word problems with one, two, and three
step solutions. Ask them to explain how they arrived at their
answers.

## Source

Montague, M., Applegate, B. & Marquard, K. (1993). Cognitive
strategy instruction and mathematical problem-solving performance of
students with learning disabilities. Learning Disabilities Research
& Practice, 8, 223-232.

### Developer

Mary Boylin, UVA