Increasing production skills
Four adults with severe retardation
Subjects had problems with their job of packaging combs in bags. During baseline, prior to initiating the intervention condition, a frequency count was taken of the number of packages completed correctly as well as the number of packages completed with errors. The supervisors reported that most of the errors during baseline related to the number of combs in the bag and they felt these errors were caused by the subjects being distracted by off-task comments of others. The self-instruction procedure was designed to focus on their attention to task. The procedure required the subjects to verbalize the statement "Comb up, Comb down, Comb in bag, Bag in box," while performing the task of placing combs in plastic bags. At the beginning of each intervention session, the subjects were provided with self-instruction training with the supervisors modeling the technique. The subjects then completed two packages while the supervisor verbalized the self-instruction technique. The intervention session began and the training session concluded when the supervisor told the subjects "Remember to talk when you work."
Two trained observers independently recorded the number of packages completed correctly as well as the number of errors made.
Salend,S.J., Ellis,L.L., & Reynolds,C.J. (1988). Using self-instruction to teach vocational skills to individuals who are severely retarded. Education and Training in Mental Retardation, 24(#3), 248-253.
Mark Revis, ETSU
Increasing task performance
3 male students with moderate intellectual impairments
Each student received a 15 minute training session to instruct them in accurate task completion. 5 tasks ,which were stapling (folding and stapling single sheets of paper), sealing (sealing envelopes with a glue stick), bagging (bagging a fork, knife, and spoon), pad making (collating and paper clipping three sheets of colored paper), and folders (stuffing folders with three pieces of colored paper) were used in consistency with the students IEP. The students were first allowed to choose the first task performed. The remainder of the task were assigned, and were either preferred or non preferred. The preferred task was the task the student choose to work on. The non preferred task was one the student had no desire to work on. During each 15 minute work session, participants were exposed to one of three treatments; assigning a preferred task, assigning a non preferred task, and providing a choice between a preferred and non preferred task.
It was calculated that 97% of time of task engagement and found that making a choice and doing a preferred task had about the same effect for 2 students and no more effect than doing non preferred task for the other.
Cole, C., Davenport, T., Bambara, L., & Ager, C. (1997). Effects of choice and task preference on the work performance of students with behavior problems. Behavior Disorders, 22(2), 65-74.
Edna E. Baessler, ETSU