Target

Increasing positive peer interactions with people who are hearing impaired

Participants

105 children with and without hearing impairments and their teachers

Technique

Teachers were elected to conduct either the social or integrated-activities intervention. The Social Skills intervention taught six social skills to the children: greeting, sharing, cooperating, assisting, complimenting, and inviting. These were taught through peer interaction. The teacher prompted social interaction if necessary, but gradually withdrew. The Integrated-Activities intervention provided small peer groups for the children. Activities were planned to give the children an opportunity to work with those in their small peer group. There was no modeling or prompting of social skills by the teacher.

Evaluation

Teachers collected social interaction data during three 20 minute free play periods. They videotaped the periods resulting in nine minutes of video tape per child. Observers counted all positive and negative linguistic and nonlinguistic interactions. They compared these results before and after the intervention.

Source

Shirin, D. A., Kreimeyer, K.H., & Eldredge, N. (1993). Promoting social interaction between young children with hearing impairments and their peers. Exceptional Children, 60(3), 262- 274.

Developer

Rebecca Brashears, ETSU


Target

Boosting the peer acceptance of children with learning disabilities

Participants

Two classrooms with several students with learning disabilities who spent part of each day(2 hours) in a special education resource room

Technique

The intervention included the use of two mnemonic devices: SLAM and FAST. SLAM stands for S=Stop-Stop whatever you're doing. L=Look-Look the person in the eye; A=Ask-Ask the person a question to clarify what he or she means; M=Make-Make an appropriate response to the person. FAST stands for; F=Freeze and Think. What is the problem?; A=Alternatives, What could I do to solve the problem; S=Solution, Which alternatives will solve the problem in the long run; T=Try it. How can I implement the solution? The intervention also consists of three key components: 1. Skills training taught the students these mnemonic devices and techniques for working in small groups and leading group activities. 2. Informant status allows the students to be selected as the class's "social skills trainers" . After training, the students will return to the class and teach their classmates information they consider valuable. 3. Significant interactions through peer pairing. Each pair should consist of one "low-accepted" student with learning disabilities and one "high-accepted" general education classmate. Teachers can also use the bulletin boards and displays in the classroom to describe the FAST and SLAM strategies and to identify the social skills trainers. At the end of the training period, the teachers should present certificates proclaiming the students to be "Official Social Skills Trainers."

Evaluation

Three assessments compared the intervention effects: (a). Rating scale of social skills completed by teachers. (b). A student rating of peer acceptance, and (c). Student and teacher interviews.

Source

McIntosh, R. , Vaughn, S. , & Bennerson, D.(1995). Fast social skills with a SLAM and a RAP-Providing social skills training for students with learning disabilities. Exceptional Children, 37-40.

Developer

Christy Fox, ETSU


Target

Decreasing communication breakdowns during cooperative learning activities

Participants

7 elementary school children with hearing losses and 21 normally hearing classmates

Technique

Children were introduced to the concepts of communication and communication breakdown. Role play and videotaped material of cooperative learning between students with hearing impairments and the normally hearing students were used to have the students identify and discuss possible causes of communication breakdown. Then they focused on effective message sending. The students were given various challenging communicative situations and as groups had to decide how to handle the communicative interaction. Finally, communication repair strategies were taught. For example, students were taught to ask for clarification when they did not understand something.

Evaluation

Researchers compared experimental and control groups' communication breakdowns before and after intervention. They calculated the proportion of unrepaired and repaired breakdowns and the number of requests for clarification.

Source

Caissie, R., & Wilson, E. (1995). Communication breakdown management during cooperative learning activities by mainstreamed students with hearing losses. The Volta Review, 97, 105-121.

Developer

Annette Fender, ETSU


Target

Improving peers' helping behavior

Participant

Twenty general educators classes from grades two through four

Technique

From each class, one average-achieving student and one student with learning disabilities were identified to participate. The 20 classrooms were assigned randomly to two treatments: peer-tutoring experience with additional training in how to help and peer-tutoring experience without training in how to help. The training classwide peer tutoring included examples of appropriate behavior for the students to engaged in while working with a partner; instruction on how to give corrective feedback and offer specific positive reinforcement for correct answers; and practice using a verbal rehearsal routine. The method of training included teacher examples, role plays, by adults and students, and student practice with teacher feedback.

Evaluation

Each LD and AA dyad was videotaped during a structured peer-tutoring activity that occurred outside the students' classroom. Teachers administrated a weekly assessments for 2-5 minutes in a whole-class format. They also developed a coding scheme according to the helping behavior and common explanations they watched on the video. There was also observer training from 3 professional observers. The tests indicated that trained tutors offered more help than untrained tutors and trained tutees asked for help much more than untrained tutees. Tutors provided more prompt to tutees than tutees to tutors. Also tutors gave more feedback to tutees than tutees gave to tutors.

Source

Bentz, J. L., & Lynn S. F. (1996). Improving peers' helping behavior to students with learning disabilities during mathematics peer tutoring. Learning Disability Quaterly, 19, 202-215

Developer

Alejandra Arriaran, ETSU


Target

Increase of social interaction between students with deaf-blindness and peers without disabilities

Participant

Three students with deaf-blindness and eight students of comparable age without disabilities

Technique

One student of comparable age to student with disability was selected to serve as a primary peer tutor for each of the students with deaf-blindness. The primary peer received training in social interaction and communication skills. Each peer tutor interacted on a social level with students with disabilities. After a week of training, primary peers selected one or two friends which they could train. Training consisted of functional activities such as sign language, attention getters (e.g. touching person on shoulder when entering a room, writing name in palm of hand, etc.). Staff members were available for additional prompts and advice for initial peers during secondary peer training, but offered no direct training themselves.

Evaluation

Researchers observed social interactions between deaf-blind students and secondary peer. Results showed a decrease in the use by secondary peers of assistance and instruction while increasing frequency of desired behaviors such as secondary peer affiliation and affirmation.

Source

Romer, L. T., White J., & Haring, N.G. (1996). The effect of peer mediated social competency training on the type and frequency of social contacts with students with deaf-blindness. Education and Training in Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities, Vol. 31, 324-338.

Developer

Sherry J. Grubb, ETSU


Target

improve peer interactions

Participants

5 elementary age boys as identified as having behavioral and emotional challenges

Technique

Undesirable behaviors may be decreased while desirable/neutral behaviors are increased by using self-monitoring and self-assessment techniques. Before beginning the procedure, the facilitator defined the terms desirable, neutral, and undesirable to the understanding of the participants. The participants were then videotaped while engaging in a 20 minute high interest activity with peers considered as having typically developing behaviors. The following day, the participants with challenging behaviors viewed 10 minutes of the videotape of the previous day activities. Both the participants and the facilitator would record the behaviors as they occurred in 30 second intervals. "Yes" was marked only for the absence of undesirable behavior. When "no" was marked as the result of the occurrence of an undesirable behavior(s) per 20 second interval, the facilitator asked the participant what behavior would have resulted in a more acceptable interaction. Participants consistently labeled alternative desirable behavior(s) in contrast to the displayed undesirable behavior(s). Participants were given one point per 30 second interval for desirable/neutral peer interaction. An additional point was given for accurately evaluating their viewed behavior(s). If students earned 80% or more of possible points per session, the points could be exchanged for a small reward at the end of the feedback session.

Evaluation

Baseline data of undesirable and desirable/neutral behaviors was taken prior to the actual viewing and feedback session. After implementation of technique, data was recorded and participants used self-monitoring and self-assessment during feedback sessions. The ABAB design used to record the data demonstrated the significant decrease in undesirable behavior(s), as well as, a positive trend in increasing desirable/neutral behavior(s).

Source

Kern-Dunlap, L., Dunlap, G., Clark, S., Childs, K.E., White, R.l., & Stewart, M.P. (1992). Effects of a videotape feedback package on the peer interactions of children with serious behavioral and emotional challenges. Applied Behavior Analysis, 25, 355-364.

Developer

Julie Newland, ETSU


Target

Increase social interactions among students with and without disabilities

Participants

11 middle school students

Technique

Social interactions among students with and without disabilities may be increased through social support networking. The networks consisted of two target students, who were identified as having delays in social adaptive behavior skills. The nine other students were identified as B and/or C students. While developing the network, the facilitator considered variables including social competence, social support, similar interest of target students and natural occurring experiences. The goal of the social support network was to model and acknowledge appropriate social interactions of students with disabilities, while developing skills to form friendships. The social support network team met with the facilitator one time per week to discuss problem areas and successes of the students with the disability. The initial meeting did not include the target students. It was designed to discuss the future goal of the team and members were asked to continue their typical routines while baseline data was collected by the facilitator from a safe distance. At the second meeting, again the non disabled students met with the facilitator without the target students. This meeting was used to adjust interaction schedules. The students were also given notebooks that contained modified interaction schedule and a set of daily peer data forms. The peers were taught to use the forms to record and rate each interaction as good, okay, not good. Interactions of the social support network occurred naturally during transitions between classes, at lunch, and after school. Strategies the team targeted for increasing social skills included, (1) age-appropriate interactions, (2) strategies for establishing eye-contact, and (3) ways to include target students in larger group activities. The networking team took data for each interaction. The target students were expected to make five appropriate interactions between each class and after school. Thirty appropriate interactions were expected of the target students during lunch. Social praise from the classroom teacher was used as reinforcement after each designated period.

Evaluation

Baseline data of social interactions was averaged at 1.2 for one student and 2.27 for the second student. After intervention, interactions jumped to 7.44 for the first student and 8.02 for the second student.

Source

Haring, T. G. , & Breen, C. G. (1992). A peer-mediated social network intervention to enhance the social integration of persons with moderate and sever disabilities. Applied Behavior Analysis, 2, 319-333.

Developer

Julie Newland, ETSU


Target

Improving social integration

Participants

6 preschool children with disabilities

Technique

Improving social integration behavior can be done through the use of peer initiations. Before beginning the procedure, target students, socially competent peers, and a teacher must be identified. Target students will be students with disabilities which inhibit social skills. Peers must be age-appropriate, able to follow teacher instructions, good academic record, and willing to participate in the procedure. Peers are encouraged to initiate play and deliver responses to target students. The role of the teacher is to provide prompts and praise to the peers and target students. To begin intervention, peers participate in five daily small-group training sessions in which they learned five specific initiations for increasing social interactions of target students. These interactions include sharing, requesting, play organization, assistance, and persistence. The teacher would provide peers were expected to earn four to six faces by initiating socialization skills. The teacher also provides verbal prompts of identifying ways to play with the toys presented. Eventually, the verbal prompts were faded out of the intervention. Next, the happy face cards were faded out by first expecting students to earn the happy faces without visualizing the card, second by tallying the number of happy faces in their head. Last, students could remember the happy faces but the teacher would not keep account of the happy faces. Furthermore, all prompts are removed, and the same instruction of baseline is given.

Evaluation

Peer initiations occurred infrequently during baseline but increased substantially through peer training, teacher prompt, and visual feedback. After the verbal and visual prompts were faded out, maintenance of the peer initiations continued to hold at the levels found during earlier phases of intervention. Five of the six children engaged in social interaction substantially above baseline.

Source

Odom, S.L., Chandler, L.K., Ostrosky, M., McConnell, S. R. & Reaney, S. (1992). Fading teacher prompts from peer-initiation interventions for young children with disabilities. Applied Behavior Analysis, 25, 307-317.

Developer

Julie Newland, ETSU


Target

Improving peer interactions

Participants

4 elementary grade students with Autism

Technique

Peer interactions may be increased by targeting initiation to peers through a script fading procedure. Before the study, the children were taught to independently follow photographic activity schedules, and later, written activity schedules that specified academic, self-care and leisure activities. Each child was also tested on target words before the study began, and teaching was conducted until each participant achieved 100% accuracy on orally reading the target words used in the scripts. During three art activities, the participants were given art materials and a single sheet of paper with written instructions, Do your art and Talk a lot . Then the same three art activities were rotated across sessions and the two written instructions were presented, followed by scripts consisting of 10 statements and questions, (e.g., [Name] did you like to swing/roller skate outside today? , [Name] do you want to use one of my pencils/crayons? ). The scripts were written so that the content reflected activities the children had recently completed or activities they were planning to do. Students were encouraged to use scripts through manual guidance procedures and verbal prompts. Manual prompts were faded quickly, and fading of the script began. Follow-up and generalization sessions were also conducted at intervals to measure continued peer initiation.

Evaluation

Place check marks adjacent to completed tasks (scripts). Note the number of initiations and responses. The introduction and systematic fading of the script significantly increased social initiations. The participants made far more than 10 initiations, even though there were only 10 scripts per sessions. Increased levels of initiation were also maintained throughout 2 month follow-up and generalization sessions.

Source

Krantz, P. J., L. E. McClannahan. (1993). Teaching children with autism to initiate to peers: Effects of a script-fading procedure, Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 26, 121-132.

Developer

Tammy Gibson, ETSU


Target

Improving peer interactions

Participants

3 children with Autism and 5 children of typical abilities enrolled in an integrated preschool program

Technique

Peer interactions may be increased by promoting reciprocal interactions through peer incidental teaching. During the study, peer tutor training and incidental teaching occurred during 5 minute sessions that took place during a mid-morning free play period. Immediately prior, to the 5 minute peer incidental teaching, the experimental teacher told the peer tutor and the target child it was time to come play together, and she presented the peer tutor with the bucket of toys that were highly preferred by the target child. The teacher sat with the peer tutor and the target child and showed the peer tutor how to conduct each step of the incidental teaching process. The peer incidental teaching required the peer tutor to (a) wait for the target child to initiate a request for a toy, (b) ask the target child for the label of the toy, (c) give the toy to the target child when he/she labeled it, and (d) praise the correct answer. Peer tutors were also trained to prompt the target child to take turns in order to create additional incidental teaching opportunities. To keep the interactions as successful as possible, objects to be identified by the target child must be already familiar and recognizable to him/her. Peer tutors were rotated after 8 sessions to promote generalization. The involvement of the experimental teacher was also faded to promote more involvement between the peer tutor and the target child.

Evaluation

Daily 5 minute videotaped sessions are scored by observers. The children s reciprocal interactions as well as teacher interactions are given scores according to the positive/negative effects each had on the process. As a result of the intervention, the children s reciprocal interactions, consisting of an initiation to or from a target child and a response to the initiation, increased with peer training. Positive increases in peer ratings across a 5 month period were also noted.

Source

McGee, G.G., M.C. Almeida, B.S. Azaroff, & R.S. Feldman. (1992). Promoting reciprocal interactions via peer incidental teaching. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 25, 117-126.

Developer

Tammy Gibson, ETSU


Target

Increasing peer interactions

Participants

3 students with autism, 11 students without disabilities, and 2 students with physical disabilities

Technique

Peer interactions may be increased by teaching social skills to students with autism. The students who participated in this study were in an integrated first-grade classroom. During baseline, the entire class participated in play groups during a twenty minute session. The play groups consisting of 1 target student and 3 students without disabilities, were provided with two activities (creating collages, dressing up, playing house, etc). After baseline data was collected. Social skills training was conducted for individual groups during the first ten minute of each twenty minute play session. Specific skills to be taught were taken from published curricula and included (a) initiating an interaction, responding to initiations,; (b) conversations, greetings, and topics; (c) giving and accepting compliments; (d) taking turns and sharing; (e) helping others and asking for help; and (f) including others in activities. Social skills training lasted for two to three weeks per skill. Following the social skills training, feedback for social skills was implemented and consisted of twenty minutes of free play with follow-up sessions were also conducted two or three times per week with monitoring consisting of two five minute checks for social interaction per group, with feedback provided to the entire class.

Evaluation

Evaluation includes teacher monitoring and completion of a 21 item social skills rating scale to measure the occurrence of particular social behaviors by targets during the play group sessions. Results from the study indicated improved social performance for target students and peers. The average number of social interactions per five minutes during baseline conditions were 0.6, 2.7 and 1.5 for the three students with autism. During social skills training, the average frequencies were 9.5, 7.4, and 6.1. During the feedback and follow-up conditions, interactions occurred on the average of five to six times.

Source

Kamps, D.M., Leonard, B.R., Vernon, S., Dugan, E.P. & Delquadri, J.C. (1992). Teaching social skills to students with autism to increase peer interactions in an integrated first-grade classroom. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 25, 281-288.

Developer

Tammy Gibson, ETSU


Target

Improving social interactions

Participant

Fifteen preschool children: 10 children with disabilities (8 males and 2 females) and 5 children developing typically (males); Ages ranged from 43 to 60 months

Technique

The requirements for the peer training were three direct instruction sessions and two or three practice sessions. The first instrument of training was the "Friendship Train" that determined target children's sociometric status. The peer was required to choose three from a set of photgraphs for the preferred passengers for the ride which were then placed in the engineer's compartment. Then he or she repeated the procedure until all of the pictures had been chosen. In the second direct instruction session the peers were asksed to name their best friend from the class. Using three 10 minutes observations of each peer and their named best friend, the average number of interactions was determined for future reference. The last direct instructional activity collectively had the peers watch a 20 minute videotape of attention-getting behaviors of target children. After each of the eight episodes the trainer paused the video for a discussion regarding what they thought the child was trying to communicate. Next the peers were taught the "buddy" strategy of "STAY-PLAY-TALK". The children were first reminded to "stay" in a close range to their buddy. Secondly, they learned the target child's name and were suggested to "play" together. Finally, peers were maintaining proximity and taught to continue to play and "talk". After training the peers were assigned to "buddy day" on a rotating basis of every third day for a 12 week period. Following the commands of the training, the peers earned stickers and verbal praise for the same number of interactions demonstrated with his or her designated buddy. Then the peers rotated buddies applying the same principles.

Evaluation

Using two IBM-compatible laptop computers with videotaping of all the training sessions, all of the children's interactions were recorded. The research data was collected for 10 minutes each day for the target children, training peers, and adults. The time was divided into 4 minutes during free play, 3 minutes during snack, and 3 minutes during large group activities. There were five categories of communicative acts coded for the children: requests for attention, general requests, comments, responses, and other (non-word and rote vocalization like counting). The three categories of communicative acts for adults were general verbal and nonverbal behavior, praise, and prompt. The results proved overall to be successful. Three of the four target children raised their total communicative acts between 18% to 30%. The only somewhat negative effect was the rotating of buddies which seemed to hinder the development of the initial relationship.

Source

English, K., Goldstein, H., Kaczmarek, L., & Shafer, K. (1997). Promoting interactions among preschoolers with and without disabilities: Effects of a buddy skills training program. Exceptional Children, 63, (2), 229-243.

Developer

Shannan Lemon, ETSU


Target

promoting social skills

Participant

two socially withdrawn boys with autism

Technique

Autistic adolescents were taught to socially respond with non-handicapped peers. Each morning Larry and Jack went to the training setting for dyadic(pair; or two individuals maintain a sociologically significant relationship) sessions with their peers. Sessions were conducted separately for each peer. The subject and peer were seated on the floor approximately one meter apart and within reach of 3 to 4 toys or games. The sessions began with the teachers comment, "It's time to play." This also signals the start of observation. Each non-handicapped peer was given three instructions:

(1) She/he was to respond to all of the subjects initiations, and to interact with the subject until the subject discontinues the interaction.

(2) Peer was not to initiate to the subject.

(3) Peer was instructed to be alert to motor-gestural initiations since Larry and Jack lacked verbal communication skills.

Evaluation

During training and generalization sessions, the subjects' and peers' initiations, responses, and interactions were continuously recorded by observers. They noted the initiations, responses, interaction, prompt, and praise from the student or teacher. When social interaction training was applied across several non-handicapped peers, one subject, Larry, began to initiate to and interact with two non-handicapped peers later. Jack exhibited no such generalization across peers or settings.

Source

Gunter, P., Fox, J. J., Brady, M. P., Shores, R. E., & Cavanaugh, K., (1988). Non-handicapped peers as multiple exemplars: A generalization tactic for promoting Autistic students' social skills. Behavioral Disorders, 13 (2), 116-126.

Developer

Mary K. Gibbs, ETSU


Target

Improving reading skills and peer interactions

Participant

Three male students with autism and their peers in general education classrooms in three elementary schools

Technique

All students were trained for three 45 minute sessions on classwide peer tutoring. Classwide peer tutoring consisted of 25 to 30 minutes of peer instruction that occurred 3 to 4 days a week as a supplement to baseline reading instruction. Components of classwide peer tutoring included reading of passages by students, feedback from peers for oral reading, correction of errors, and public posting. Each week, students were assigned a tutoring partner and were then assigned to either the red or blue tutoring team. During tutoring, the tutee read for 8 to 10 minutes from the same reading materials used in baseline while the tutor scored points on a point sheet for correctly read sentences. The tutor provided positive and corrective feedback to the tutee as they read. The passages were short so that they could be read at least two times during the tutoring session. Following the reading with feedback, the tutor asked 3 minutes of comprehension questions (who, what, where, when and why). The tutor and the tutee then reversed roles and the tutoring process was repeated. Teachers monitored tutor and tutee performances throughout the tutoring sessions and gave students bonus points on their point sheets for appropriate tutor and tutee behaviors. At the end of the session, students orally read scores to the teacher , who posted and announced the student's "grand total".

Immediately following reading instruction during baseline and tutoring, students were allowed 15 to 20 minutes to participate in unstructured free-time groups. Three to five classroom areas were set up with activities selected by the teacher to promote social interaction. Students chose areas in which to participate. Areas might include games, art projects, or pantomime activities. Some general rules were announced prior to free time, as "be nice to your friends," "no more than 4 or 5 students in a group," and "every student must join a group".

Evaluation

Effects were measured by comparing percentages of correct comprehension questions and total duration of free-time social interactions before and after the intervention. Classwide peer tutoring produced higher mean social interaction times for all three students. When classwide peer tutoring was reinstated following baseline, all three students improved their mean reading rates, reading comprehension percentages and mean social interaction times. Results indicated that classwide peer tutoring was an effective strategy for increasing reading skills and social interactions of students with autism.

Source

Kamps, D., Barbetta, P., Leonard, B., Delquadri, J. (1994). Classwide peer tutoring: An integration strategy to improve reading skills and promote peer interactions among students with autism and general education peers. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 27, 40-61.

Developer

Judith Powell, ETSU