Target

Increase word-list reading

Participants

Elementary students with learning or behavior problems

Technique

Students were escorted to a room adjacent to their classrooms. First, the researchers used a published word list to find out words the students did not know. Unknown words were divided into groups based on the level of the words. These were assigned to 3 sets of words. The words were listed on a worksheet in the same order they were recorded, either fast or slow, on audio - tape. The intervention started with either fast or slow tape recorded words and the student was asked to read the words aloud with the tape and to try not to read the words before or after the tape. For the first assessment, the student was advised to read the words aloud without skipping any words. If they didn't know some words, the instructor encouraged the student to try their best.

Evaluation

Words were scored as correct if they were read accurately within 5 seconds. If a student self-corrected a response, it was considered correct. The number of words read correctly per minute was calculated by multiplying the number of words read correctly by 60 and dividing by the number of seconds taken to read the list. Fast-taped words and slow-taped words resulted in greater increases in accuracy and rates of accurate reading. The opportunity to read words independently provided during the taped - words intervention and during assessments led to increases in reading performance.

Source

Skinner, C. & Carol. (1995). The influence of rate of presentation during taped-words interventions on reading performance. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 3, 214-227.

Developer

Julie Bridwell, ETSU


Target

Improving oral reading and comprehension

Participants

Elementary grade students who were identified as skill deficient in reading and comprehension

Technique

Each day, each student was given stories that contained 500 words or more to read orally. The student was scored on his correct and incorrect word rate. Then, the student was given a set of questions to answer. Each student was placed at a reading level where his oral correct rate was between 45 and 65 wpm, his oral incorrect rate was between 4 and 8 wpm, and his average correct comprehension percentage was between 50 and 75 percent. Desired performance levels were created based on these scores.

The criterion for skipping was set at 25% improvement in their correct, incorrect word rate and their comprehension accuracy. If the student met the above criterion , then he was allowed to skip the story. If the student did not meet the 25% rate of improvement for a period of seven days, then the teacher implemented drilling procedure in the area/areas not meeting the criterion.

The drilling procedure for correct rate required the student to read the last 100 words until he could meet the criterion level. The drilling procedure for incorrect rate required the student to rehearse a list of words he had missed during the reading session until he was proficient. The procedure for comprehension required the student to rework the incorrect responses until they were all correct.

Evaluation

Record the number of correct, incorrect word rate and percentage of comprehension accuracy.

Source

Lovitt, T. C., & Hansen, C.L. (1976). The use of contingent skipping and drilling to improve oral reading and comprehension. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 9, 481-487.

Developers

Sharon Bowman and Huong Hua , UVA


Target

Increasing oral reading accuracy

Participants

Elementary students with reading problems

Technique

Prepractice procedures have been shown to improve oral reading accuracy. In this method, the teacher reads a passage aloud and the student is instructed to "follow along" silently in the text. After listening to the teacher read, the student reads the same passage aloud. The student will have a higher rate of words read correctly than without the listening procedure.

Evaluation

The student reads the passage aloud for two minutes. The teacher scores the accuracy by subtracting words read incorrectly from the total number of words read and dividing by two (minutes). This gives the rate of words read correctly per minute.

Source

Rose, T. L. (1984). The effects of two prepractice procedures on oral reading. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 17, 544-548.

Developers

Heather Love Stephens, Kimberly Prudhomme, UVA


Target

Improving oral reading

Participants

Two eight year old students and one twelve year old student with learning disabilities

Technique

Oral reading skills may be increased by teacher modeling. This study had two experiments. The first experiment was on two eight year old children. The experiment included baseline, modeling, and follow-up. Baseline data consisted of the students reading aloud with no feedback or instructions. Modeling consisted of the teacher reading aloud from the textbook for one minute while the students listened. Then the students read the passage for an allotted time (two to three minutes) where the teacher quit reading. During follow-up, the teacher discontinued the intervention and had the children read aloud without modeling. The second experiment was with a twelve year old who had low reading ability. This experiment consisted of five components: baseline, modeling, modeling plus error correction, previewing plus modeling plus error correction, and follow-up. Baseline data consisted of the student reading a story aloud for five minutes from a textbook with no feedback or correction. The second phase of this intervention, modeling, had the teacher read one page aloud and then having the student read the rest of the story. Modeling plus error correction required the teacher to model, as she had in the previous condition, but corrected the student when he made an error. The third component of the experiment included previewing plus modeling plus error correction. During this phase, the teacher read the first page of the story, then had the student reread the same page and continue until the end of the story. The teacher corrected the errors as the student read. Follow-up consisted of returning to baseline data where no interventions were used. The researcher measured progress the correct rate and the error rate. The correct rate is dividing words read correctly by time, and the error rate is dividing the words read incorrectly by time.

Evaluation

Modeling, in the first experiment, improved students' oral reading. The first student's correct rate mean increased 17% while her error rate mean decreased 38%. The second student's rate did not increase markedly but the teacher claimed that his reading was more fluent and less choppy. In the second experiment, the student improved remarkably. The second student's correct rate mean increased 52% while his error rate mean decreased 16%.

Source

Smith, D. D. (1979). The improvement of children's oral reading through the use of teacher modeling. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 12(3), 39-52.

Developer

Kristi Shell, ETSU


Target

improving oral reading skills

Partiticipant

30 kindergarten students, 18 girls and 12 boys and their parents

Technique

The parents of the Kindergarten students and the classroom teacher will select one storybook, and the parents will read that storybook to their children at home. The teacher and one student will read the storybook on a tape recorder each day, and the parents will do the same thing 5 days at home. After the students have read and listen to the storybook each student will read the storybook to the teacher and the other students.. The teacher will tape them reading aloud. This way the teacher can note the improvement in the student oral reading skills.

Evaluation

66% of the students are reading at a third grade level when this research was finshed. The students reading achievement was higher.

Source

Dorothy, T. A. & Watson, J. A. (1994). Reading Research and Instruction 34(1) 57-69.

Developer

Kimberly Shipley, ETSU


Target

Improving oral reading

Participants

Fifty- two children with dyslexia and fifty-two typical reading children

Technique

To improve the reading skills of the dyslexic students through a series of timed readings which were administered. The student was to read a series of 6 different segments of text, first at their own speed. After the item was read it was immediately erased. The second part of the test was a fast paced reading skill, in which the child read the text at their best timed reading. The third part of the test was for the child to read the text again at their own speed. They then were asked to identify which words by use of multiple choice that they had just read orally. After they had completed the readings the students scores were measured against their others. The results were that the students had some improvement on cognitive recognition of the words.

Evaluation

The evaluators measured the dyslexic students with the normal students by reading comprehension, reading time, and total number of reading errors. In the fast paced reading rate condition both groups gained in comprehension. Results showed that different patterns of comprehension gains emerged for the two groups of readers during reading acceleration. Both groups exhibited a reduction in repetition and substitution errors using the fast-paced reading. The dyslexic students had a greater reduction in repetition errors.

Source

Breznitz, Z. (1997) Enhancing the reading of Dyslexic children by reading acceleration and auditory masking. Journal of Education Psychology, 89(1), 103-113.

Developer

Allison Renner, ETSU


Target

Improving reading comprehension through oral reading

Participant

Forty two students approximately nine years old

Technique

Material from grades sixth through fourth are used for this study. Oral reading and comprehension were manipulated and measured to test for a correlation. This is done on an individual basis giving each student between 45 and 90 minutes to complete the task. Initially, each participant read aloud three Grade 2, then three Grade 4, and then three Grade 6 passages for a total of nine passages. The students read each contact passage aloud unitl the entire passage was read. For independent measures, the number of words students were able to read correctly in the first minute was recorded. The number of words read correctly in the first minute were computed for each of the nine passages to ensure that the ascribed differences in passage difficulty actually effected the intended differences in reading performance. Omissions, mispronunciations, and substitutions while reading aloud were counted as errors, whereas insertions or self-corrections were not recorded as errors. For dependent measures, the student was afforded 2 minutes to work silently on the maze passage immediately after each passage was read aloud. After completing the maze passages, students were given unlimited time to anwser the text-explicit questions (questions in which the question and the answer are present in the same sentence) about each passage they read. The questions were read aloud by the examiner and answered orally by the students. In answering the questions, students were not allowed to look at the questions or the text for assistance.

Evaluation

A comparison of scores from the three passage levels (material from grades 2,4,6) are analyzed. The group means (average) and standard deviations were compared from the scores of three passage levels. Also, a set of individual analyses were conducted to determine improvement of reading comprehension due to oral reading. The study suggests that when an oral reading score increases, improvement in reading comprehension can occur but will vary.

Source

Markell, M.A. (1997). Effects of increasing oral reading: Generalization across reading tasks. The Journal of Special Education, 31 (2), 235-249.

Developer

Anne DeVoti, ETSU


Target

improving reading and metaphonological outcomes in late talkers

Participant

thirty two language delayed two year olds and twenty seven normal-language toddlers

Technique

All participants passed a hearing screening, observational screening for neurological disorders and for autism. Both groups were referred to as either SELD (slow expressive language development) or NL (normal language) and were closely matched in terms of socioeconomic level and on nonverbal IQ scores. Subjects remained in the study and were seen for yearly follow-up evaluation of language and related skills through their second grade year. The Test of Language Development-Primary (TOLD-P) was administered to all subjects at the second grade evaluation. This test consists of subtests that measures semantics, syntax, and phonology. Also, spontaneous speech samples were collected using an interview format. Each child was asked a series of three-open-ended questions about family, school, and hobbies, and used nondirective follow-up questions to keep the child talking for the 10 minute period. The Lindamood Auditory Conceptualization Test measuring childrenís abilities to manipulate the order of segmented phonemes they identify was administered. The Peabody Individual Achievement Test was also administered in order to assess school achievement.

Evaluation

A comparison of scores from the SELD and NL groups are analyzed. The findings of the study indicate a predictive relationship between metaphonological awareness and reading. However, the articulation errors seen in children with SELD did not appear to adversely affect metaphonological skills or reading achievement. Thus, children with SELD are not necessarily from the same population as children with Reading or Learning Disabilities because virtually all participants perform within the normal range of school achievement.

Source

Andrews, D., Clancy, K., Murray, C., & Paul, R. (1997). Reading and Metaphonological Outcomes in Late Talkers. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 40, 1037-1047.

Developer

Anne DeVoti, ETSU


Target

Increasing reading ability

Participant

Thirty-seven special education resource teachers and 176 students with mild disabilities

Technique

The methods used to improve both reading instruction and ability were peer tutoring, reciprocal teaching, computer-aided instruction, two direct instruction models, and various other effective teaching principles. This research was designed to answer three specific questions: Would any of these approaches lead to better achievement for students with mild disabilities? Would there be one particular approach that proved to be more beneficial than any other? How would these various approaches differ from one another with respect to the interacting behavior of both the teachers and the students? The procedure was conducted by distributing the 176 students so that each technique would be experienced by a variety of grade levels. Then the 31 participating teachers were randomly assigned to one of the six instructional approaches. Peer tutoring training for the teachers was based on supervising and instructing tutoring sessions. For the computer-assisted program the teachers reviewed previous research as well as twelve teacher-controlled software programs. The programs covered material such as decoding, sight word recognition, and comprehension. Teachers had the privilege of controlling time factors and creating their own selection of words and passages. The basic approach of the direct instruction technique with the Science Research Associates Curriculum and the Holt Basal Reading series included choral response, guided and independent practice, corrective feedback, and reinforcement. These teachers were trained using sample lessons, practice teaching sessions, and reviewing lessons on videotape. Other effective teaching methods such as positive feedback and monitoring the pupil progress were demonstrated and reviewed by all the teachers. The reciprocal teaching was a cognitive technique for teaching elementary reading. This approach focused on returning dialogue using four strategies: summarizing, question generating, clarifying, and predicting.

Evaluation

Every week the students read a randomly, appropriately selected passage with regard to difficulty according to the Holt Basal Reading series. The collective number of words correct for each passage was calculated, and the median score for each of the ten weeks was graphically plotted. The instructional ecology was analyzed using two systems. The first system was the Code for Instructional Structure and Student Academic Responding (CISSAR) which regulated the observations of student response to teacher behavior according to eight types of student behavior and twelve teacher behaviors. An abbreviation for each type of behavior was given to both teacher and student in 15 second intervals during the 45 minute period by three observers. The results were then averaged. The Structure of Instruction Rating Scale (SIRS) system was also used by the same three observers at the end of each observation period to rate the teachers on 12 instructional variables. Each student was observed once, while each teacher was observed a total of five times during the project. The results proved that direct instructional approach profited both the teachers and the students more than any other method as well as rated the highest as a favoring strategy and a favoring comparison. Falling into second place was the technique of peer tutoring. The conclusion for less success with peer tutoring was competing behavior that interfered with the lesson quality for those students.

Source

Deno, S.L., Diment, K., Kim, D., Marston, D., & Rogers, D. (1995). Comparison of reading intervention approaches for students with mild disabilities. Exceptional Children, 62, (1), 20-37.

Developer

Shannan Lemon, ETSU


Target

Improving reading skills and peer interactions

Participant

Three male students with autism and their peers in general education classrooms in three elementary schools

Technique

All students were trained for three 45 minute sessions on classwide peer tutoring. Classwide peer tutoring consisted of 25 to 30 minutes of peer instruction that occurred 3 to 4 days a week as a supplement to baseline reading instruction. Components of classwide peer tutoring included reading of passages by students, feedback from peers for oral reading, correction of errors, and public posting. Each week, students were assigned a tutoring partner and were then assigned to either the red or blue tutoring team. During tutoring, the tutee read for 8 to 10 minutes from the same reading materials used in baseline while the tutor scored points on a point sheet for correctly read sentences. The tutor provided positive and corrective feedback to the tutee as they read. The passages were short so that they could be read at least two times during the tutoring session. Following the reading with feedback, the tutor asked 3 minutes of comprehension questions (who, what, where, when and why). The tutor and the tutee then reversed roles and the tutoring process was repeated. Teachers monitored tutor and tutee performances throughout the tutoring sessions and gave students bonus points on their point sheets for appropriate tutor and tutee behaviors. At the end of the session, students orally read scores to the teacher , who posted and announced the student's "grand total".

Immediately following reading instruction during baseline and tutoring, students were allowed 15 to 20 minutes to participate in unstructured free-time groups. Three to five classroom areas were set up with activities selected by the teacher to promote social interaction. Students chose areas in which to participate. Areas might include games, art projects, or pantomime activities. Some general rules were announced prior to free time, as "be nice to your friends," "no more than 4 or 5 students in a group," and "every student must join a group".

Evaluation

Effects were measured by comparing percentages of correct comprehension questions and total duration of free-time social interactions before and after the intervention. Classwide peer tutoring produced higher mean social interaction times for all three students. When classwide peer tutoring was reinstated following baseline, all three students improved their mean reading rates, reading comprehension percentages and mean social interaction times. Results indicated that classwide peer tutoring was an effective strategy for increasing reading skills and social interactions of students with autism.

Source

Kamps, D., Barbetta, P., Leonard, B., Delquadri, J. (1994). Classwide peer tutoring: An integration strategy to improve reading skills and promote peer interactions among students with autism and general education peers. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 27, 40-61.

Developer

Judith Powell, ETSU


Target

Improving reading fluency

Participants

Four male elementary school students with learning disabilities

Technique

Fluency in reading might be increased by reading a passage over and over again. The students in this study were in the beginning stages of reading acquisition. The students were asked to read a 100 word passage. Criteria was measured through correct words per minute. The students had three sets of three passages to read. The first set of three passages was used for baseline data where the students read the material aloud without any help from the teacher. Then this first set of three passages was tape recorded by the teacher at a rate of 100 words per minute. During this first intervention the students were asked to listen to the passages read by the teacher then read the passages aloud themselves. The students were required to improve the correct words per minute for three consecutive days before moving on to the second set of passages. The researchers called this intervention the improvements phase. The students were then given the second set of three passages to read without any help, and the second set of baseline data was recorded. The second intervention was repeated (the teacher recorded the passages and played the passages before the child read aloud) except the child was required to read the passages at a fixed rate of 90 words per minute as the mastery requirement. This intervention was called the fixed rate phase. During the two interventions, the students were shown a graph that plotted their improvements. After mastering the first two sets of passages, the students read the third set of passages aloud to see if the students could generalize across passages for a third baseline.

Evaluation

Rereading passages improved these students' fluency. During the improvements phase, the students' percentage of words correct per minute increased 30%, 47%, 64%, and 145%. During the improvements phase, the students' percentage of words correct per minute increase 44%, 46%, 63%, and 156%.

Source

Weinstein, G., & Cooke, N. L. (1992). The effects of two repeated reading interventions on generalization of fluency. Learning Disability Quarterly, 15, 21-28.

Developer

Kristi Shell, ETSU


Target

Increasing students' reading rate of vocabulary sight-words

Participants

Learning disabled high school students with reading problems

Technique

The rate of isolated vocabulary word response may be improved through the use of a tape-recorded modeling procedure. First, the teacher develops a vocabulary list of 80 words taken from curriculum materials. The student reads the list orally for exactly one minute. If the student reads less than 50 words in that time period, the list may be used for the taped procedure. Next, the student is given a cassette tape recording of the vocabulary list in order, preceded by the following directions: "These are the (curricular area) words, 80 words per minute. Read the words with the tape. Ready, begin." After the student reads the words aloud with the recording once (using headphones), s/he reads the list to the teacher for a one minute period. After satisfactory performance on the evaluation, the student is better prepared to read the curricular area materials.

Evaluation

Record the number of words the student could correctly pronounce in one minute. Satisfactory performance is considered to be 110 words per minute with a maximum of two errors.

Source

Freeman, T. J., & McLaughlin, T. F. (1984). Effects of taped-words treatment procedure on learning disabled students' sight-word oral reading. Learning Disability Quarterly, 7, 49-54.

Developers

Kimberly Prudhomme, and Angelique Tritaris, UVA


Target

Improving student's reading fluency

Participants

Second grade students from large, urban, elementary schools

Technique

At the beginning of each school day the teacher administered a fluency development lesson (FDL) to the class. The FDL was a 10-15 min. instructional reading activity using a different 50-150 word text each day. Each child was given a copy of the text which was carefully selected as interesting and appropriate for second graders. The FDL included the following steps: Teacher introduced the text and invited predictions. Teacher modeled fluent reading by orally reading text to the whole class. Teacher led discussion of text content and teacher's oral reading. Particular attention was given to teacher's rate, phrasing, and expression and intonation during reading. Teacher led whole class in several choral readings. Class divided into pairs. Each student read text 2-3 times to partner, then roles were reversed. Listening partner provided positive feedback to and support for the reader. Students were provided with a form that allowed them to make positive evaluations and comments about their partners' reading. Teacher called students back to their places after the paired reading practice and invited individuals, pairs, or small groups to perform the text for the class. Students placed the text in a folder and were encouraged to practice reading on their own and to read the text for their parents.

Evaluation

Record oral reading rate (words per minute) of students reading material at instructional reading level.

Source

Rasinski, T.V., Padak, N., Linek, W., & Sturtevant, E. (1994). Effects of fluency development on urban second-grade readers. Journal of Educational Research, 87(3), 158-164.

Developer

Linda Glover, UVA