**Target**

Improve coin summation skills

**Participants**

Two adolescents and two young adults with mental retardation

**Technique**

Subjects were taught to count each coin singly by placing it on the table and asking the subject to state the coins value. For silver coins, subjects were taught to place one finger on the table for each time the coin was divisible by five (e.g. the nickel was counted by placing the index finger next to it and saying "five"). For pennies the subjects were taught to count one, two, three, etc. and tapping their index finger. The experimenter first modeled counting the coin, subjects then counted the coin with the experimenter, if an error occurred subjects were manually guided through the counting method until it was performed correctly, subjects then performed the counting procedure by themselves. Subjects were then taught to sum the coins in combination with other previously taught coins. The coins were placed vertically in front of the subjects in the order that they were taught. The experimenter modeled summing the coins, the subject and the experimenters did the coin summation together, and then participants counted the coins by themselves.

**Evaluation**

To measure results, count the number of correct responses made while using fingers. The results showed that coin summation performance improved greatly.

**Source **

Lowe, M. L., & Cuvo, A. J. (1976). Teaching coin summation to the mentally retarded. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 9, 483-489.

**Developer **

Loralee Price, ETSU

**Target **

To improve money-counting skills

**Participants **

Three high school students and two adults, all with mental retardation

**Technique**

Purchasing ability may be increased by using the One-More-Than technique, in which participants are taught to pay one-more dollar than requested (e.g., if the salesclerk says "$3.72," then the participant would pay four, one dollar bills). Probes of fifteen items were given before training began until data was consistent. The subjects were introduced to the technique through oral description and modeling the technique. The subjects were then given ten training items to do. If the answer was wrong, the trainer would verbally describe and model the behavior and then the subjects would try again. Some subjects were told to "say back" the dollars and cents when it was not given to them in the initial request (e.g., "it costs four-fifty," the subject would say "four dollars and fifty cents"). Also, some subjects, who were having problems with the One-More-Than approach, were taught to put one dollar aside for cents, count out the requested dollar amount, and then combine the two groups.

**Evaluation**

To measure results, count how many correct on the training items and probes. The results showed that each person mastered the One-More-Than technique.

**Source**

Test, D. W., Howell, A., Burkhart, K., & Beroth, T. (1993). The one-more-than technique as a strategy for counting money for individuals with moderate mental retardation. Education and Training in Mental Retardation, 28, 232-241.

**Developer**

Loralee Price, ETSU

**Target**

To improve coin equivalence skills

**Participants**

Fourteen adolescents with mental retardation

**Technique**

Training was divided into six stages. Each stage had specific monetary amounts that subjects learned one specific method for combining coins to get the target amount (e.g., stage one required subjects to use only nickels to get the target amounts). Training started with the experimenter stating the response requirements, selecting two of the target values and modeling the correct responses. A coin machine from a vending machine was used to tell the amount needed, and deposit the money into the machine. Each step was taught by the experimenter. If the subject answered correctly, they progressed to the next step. If an incorrect answer was given, the experimenter or modelled the correct response and the step was retaught. To proceed to the next stage, subjects had to correctly complete all response requirements for that stage and demonstrate 100% mastery of the requirements.

**Evaluation**

To measure results, count the number correct on the coin-equivalence test. The results of the study showed a significant increase in coin-equivalence ability.

**Source**

Trace, M. W., Cuvo, A. J., & Criswell, J. L. (1977). Teaching coin-equivalence to the mentally retarded. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 10, 85-92.

**Developer **

Loralee Price, ETSU