To teach first aid skills


Four students with moderate physical disabilities


Prior to baseline, the students were placed in their home without a peer tutor. Researchers made a list of steps to follow for each of the 3 injuries. A simulated injury was placed on the participant, while the observer pointed out the injury and cued participant to apply first aid. "Show me how to take care of it", the observer said. Each part was assessed with three minor injuries (abrasions, second degree burn, severe cuts). After the session, participants were praised for their hard work. During baseline, simulated injuries were placed on participants, with peer tutors pointing out injuries and cuing him or her to take care of it. No modeling or feedback was provided by either the peer tutor or trainer. Participants and tutors were praised for working hard and received praise, stickers, or small school supplies for participation. Peer instruction began first by the tutor telling the participant that he or she had an injury and was going to take care of it. "I will show you how to take care of it". The peer then modeled each treatment step. Next, the tutor provided instructional care while participants practiced skills with his or her injury, while the tutor provided correct feedback. Finally, participants practiced again without tutor feedback.


Observers counted the number of first aid steps completed correctly. With peer instruction and feedback, the participants acquired the three first aid skills. They complete more steps correctly. Teaching students first aid in their home, where most accidents usually occur, instead of in the school, makes them more aware of what to do in case an accident occurs.


Martella, N.E., & Martella, R.C. (1992). Generalized effect of a peer-delivered first aid program for students with moderate intellectual disabilities. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 25, 841-851.


Julie Bridwell, ETSU