Improve gaze direction


Four children with visual impairments (blindness) and one hundred sixty people with normal site


The study was conducted in two phases. In the first phase, the four blind children were videotaped before and after they received training in gaze direction. Gaze direction training involved physical prompting, verbal feedback and social reinforcement. Correct gaze direction was defined as the movement of a student's head in the direction of the person speaking to them or they were speaking to for at least three seconds at a proper plane. Training was conducted until each child mastered gazing completely and maintained their performance for three consecutive days. When the children were video taped, steps were taken to present identical backdrops and surroundings for both the pretraining and posttraining videos to prevent any biases among the viewers. The interviewers in the videos ask the children fifteen random questions to develop a dialogue. A group of one hundred sixty people with normal site were divided into four different groups for purposes of viewing the videos of the blind children. After viewing the pretraining and posttraining videos for each child the groups were asked to evaluate each child by completing the Attribute Projection Instrument. After observation of all four children the groups then were asked to complete a thirty item Attribute to Blindness Scale to determine their attitudes toward the children after they viewed them using directional gazing.


The attitudes of the four viewing groups toward the blind children when they did not use directional gazing were compared with their attitudes toward the children when they did use directional gazing.


Raver, S. (1987). Training gaze direction in blind children: attitude effects on the sighted. Remedial and Special Education,8(5). 40-45.


Mike Wilson, E.T.S.U.