Teaching students how to invent
707 students in Grades Four through Eight
Students were randomly assigned to control and treatment groups. The treatment group was instructed in the process of inventing. The eight lesson unit included: (1) learning the definition of inventions, hearing stories about the creation of some inventions, and seeing examples of studentsí inventions, (2) learning how to sign and date entries in an inventorsí log and how to adapt and combine junk materials into a new device that fulfilled a function, (3) finding a want or need for an invention - learning problem-finding techniques used in the first step of the invention process, (4) thinking of solutions to problems by applying a checklist to generate possible solutions, (5) evaluating solutions by selecting criteria by which to judge their solutions and using an evaluation grid, (6) building models or prototypes of inventions, (7) learning techniques used by inventors to name and market inventions, and (8) communicating and sharing inventions with others. The control group received only the introductory lesson about inventing. All students were encouraged to develop an invention and submit a 3-page description and a photograph of the invention.
The Invention Evaluation Scale was used to assess originality, technical value, and aesthetic appeal of the inventions. The students who received instruction in the inventing process developed a greater number of inventions. The quality of their inventions was not significantly higher than the control group based on the Invention Evaluation Scale.
Westberg, K.L. (1996). The effects of teaching students how to invent. Journal of Creative Behavior, 30, 249-267.
Susan M. Hubley, ETSU
To increase self-concept and creativity
Forty-five third graders, whose ages range from eight years six months to nine years one month
The children were separated into two groups: an experimental group and a control group. During twelve week sessions, the experimental group was exposed to a more creative way of thinking through a holistic approach. This approach was used because it teaches an attitude of respect for other learners and makes the students more aware of the diversity in the way other people think and feel. In the twelve week session, the experimental group studied the basics of movement, performed a pantomime of different machines, discover what types of sounds they thought pictures would make, and studied math through movement. Basically, the sessions were interactive, experimental, and flexible.
Three tests were used for pretest and posttest scores: the Torrence Test of Creative Thinking, the Pierrs-Harris Children's Self-concept Scale, and the Creativity Assessment Packet. Both a pretest and posttest were given to all of the students in both groups. Results of this intervention show that there was a significant gain in a self-concept in the group that was exposed to the creative program.
Flaherty, M. A. (1992). The effects of a holistic creativity program on the self-concept and creativity of third graders. Journal of Creative Behavior, 26, 165 - 171.