Establishing the concept of number
Elementary grade students between the ages of seven and nine who were retarded and/or emotionally disturbed. These students were unable to match sets of symbols to numbers and vice versa.
Each day give the child work that includes three written arithmetic tasks: (1) matching sets of symbols to numbers, (2) matching numbers to sets of symbols, and (3) matching equal sets of symbols. Overall the assignment should last no longer than 25 minutes and include about 30 items, ten items from each task. Before the child begins, the teacher should model an incorrect and a correct response by circling and counting the appropriate numbers and symbols. While demonstrating the correct solutions, the teacher should model a system for counting the objects in a set and finding the corresponding numeral. The child should repeat each task until the correct responses are circled. In addition, the teacher should be actively involved in this procedure by giving praise for correct answers and moving around the room offering minimal assistance but monitoring performance.
Record the percentage scored correct on each task solely by the accuracy of the final circling response.
Grimm, J. A., Bijou, S. W., Parsons, J. A. (1973). A problem solving model for teaching remedial arithmatic to handicapped young children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 1, 26-39.
Romell Haynes, and Leslie Rust, UVA
Teaching students to recognize the numbers in a set without actually counting them
Twelve students in a K-1 classroom who are identified as learning disabled
Sessions were held over a four-week period during regular mathematics instructional time and lasted approximately 15 minutes. The children were asked to state the number for the given frame pattern within three seconds. A frame pattern is a group of 5 boxes in a vertical row, with 1 or 0 dots per cell. The number of dots in each frame represent the numbers 1 through 5. After the children were able to master recognition of the frames; they were asked to practice basic addition using the frames.
The percentage of mastery in using 5-frame cards to recognize and match the numbers 0 through 5 and to add sums up to five as determined on a teacher-administered performance test.
Funkhouser, C. (1995). Developing number sense and basic computational skills in students with special needs. School Science and Mathematics, 95, 236-239.
Rebecca Brashears, ETSU