## Target

Establishing the concept of number

## Participants

Elementary grade students between the ages of seven and nine who
were retarded and/or emotionally disturbed. These students were
unable to match sets of symbols to numbers and vice versa.

## Technique

Each day give the child work that includes three written
arithmetic tasks: (1) matching sets of symbols to numbers, (2)
matching numbers to sets of symbols, and (3) matching equal sets of
symbols. Overall the assignment should last no longer than 25 minutes
and include about 30 items, ten items from each task. Before the
child begins, the teacher should model an incorrect and a correct
response by circling and counting the appropriate numbers and
symbols. While demonstrating the correct solutions, the teacher
should model a system for counting the objects in a set and finding
the corresponding numeral. The child should repeat each task until
the correct responses are circled. In addition, the teacher should be
actively involved in this procedure by giving praise for correct
answers and moving around the room offering minimal assistance but
monitoring performance.

## Evaluation

Record the percentage scored correct on each task solely by the
accuracy of the final circling response.

## Source

Grimm, J. A., Bijou, S. W., Parsons, J. A. (1973). A problem
solving model for teaching remedial arithmatic to handicapped young
children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 1, 26-39.

### Developers

Romell Haynes, and Leslie Rust, UVA

## Target

Teaching students to recognize the numbers in a set without
actually counting them

## Participants

Twelve students in a K-1 classroom who are identified as learning
disabled

## Technique

Sessions were held over a four-week period during regular
mathematics instructional time and lasted approximately 15 minutes.
The children were asked to state the number for the given frame
pattern within three seconds. A frame pattern is a group of 5 boxes
in a vertical row, with 1 or 0 dots per cell. The number of dots in
each frame represent the numbers 1 through 5. After the children were
able to master recognition of the frames; they were asked to practice
basic addition using the frames.

## Evaluation

The percentage of mastery in using 5-frame cards to recognize and
match the numbers 0 through 5 and to add sums up to five as
determined on a teacher-administered performance test.

## Source

Funkhouser, C. (1995). Developing number sense and basic
computational skills in students with special needs. School Science
and Mathematics, 95, 236-239.

### Developer

Rebecca Brashears, ETSU