Target

Teaching nouns to help facilitate general language development

Participants

Three preschoolers with mental retardation

Technique

Two teachers assess whether children with mental retardation learn better by following the child's lead (teaching about objects which are currently holding the child's interest) or by recruiting the child's attention when teaching them nouns. Teachers use the Mileu Language Teaching method, which allows them to teach the nouns in the child's area of interest (in this study, the natural setting is the play area) and teaches these nouns in accordance with the appropriate developmental level of the children. For fifteen minutes during four days of the week (for a total of sixty-four sessions), the teacher focuses on teaching nouns related to current objects of interest following the child's lead. Also, the educator directs the child's attention to other objects, and if the child does not answer or answers incorrectly, then the educator models the correct response and play is continued.

Evaluation

Twice a week, the children were tested for comprehension of the words being taught according to two major criteria. First, a correct response to the target word on two out of three tries (a group of objects were placed in front of the child and he or she was asked to point to the correct one), and the second one being the student correctly using the target word at least three times in one week.

Source

Yoder, P. J., Kraiser, A. P., Alpert, C., & Fischer, R. (1993). Following the child's lead when teaching nouns to preschoolers with mental retardation. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 36, 15 -167.

Developer

Candace, ETSU


Target

Improving acquisition, maintenance and generalization of specific linguistic structure skills

Participants

Preschool children with developmental delays in language and cognition

Technique

Child is videotaped during a language session. The adult in the session models the appropriate use of the target word and elicits multiple responses from the child. This session on the videotape is then edited and the child is later introduced to his own videotaped self modeling intervention. The tape is edited so that the child can hear the adult modeling the target skill in an utterance immediately followed by seeing him/herself saying that exact utterance and targeted skill correctly. Only the targeted skill that the child demonstrates correctly is retained in the edited version-all incorrect productions or targeted skills are removed from the videotape. The videotape also includes several positive verbal reinforcements from the adult that was present in the initial language session. After editing, the child is allowed to watch the video. During the tape viewing the child is prompted by the adult (e.g. "I would like you to see this videotape so that you can see and hear yourself say and use the correct way". Interest in the videotape is also enhanced by including an introductory statement to the video stating "Welcome to the [child's name] show. Let's listen to [child's name] use..." During the viewing period of the intervention session, the child uses the pause button on the VCR to immediately stop the videotape so that he/she can imitate one of his/her own videotaped utterances. The child receives intermittent positive verbal reinforcement from the adult in the video viewing intervention setting. The child watches the edited videotape for three to five minutes a day over a period of three weeks.

Evaluation

Obtain language sample and percentage score of correct usage of targeted skill. This technique improved studentís targeted performance from baseline scores ranging from 9%, 13 %, and 3% to scores of 46%, 60%, and 37 % after intervention.

Source

Buggey, T. (1995). An examination of the effectiveness of videotaped self-modeling in teaching specific linguistic structures to preschoolers. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 15 (4), 434- 458.

Developer

Mitzi M. Myers, East Tennessee State University


Target

Promoting early social-communicative skills

Participants

Preschool child with developmental disabilities

Technique

Early social-communicative skills can be increased by implementing a social interactive training technique. The teacher needs to derive the strategies used from naturally occurring patterns of social interactions such as through play with knowledge of typical developmental sequences. The teacher needs to facilitate eye contact by imitating the childís movements and vocalizations within the childís field of vision and reward with social praise. The teacher needs to facilitate joint attention during shared play by motivating the child by using an activity that required another persons assistance ( such as opening a jar lid). The teacher needs to facilitate imitation by using strategies that are simple, familiar to the child, and that have performed recently by the child. Each social interaction intervention session should last 15 minutes and should occur daily.

Evaluation

Videotape all sessions. Record the amount of eye contact, joint attention, and imitation behaviors that occurred. Also note exact imitation of behaviors, any reinforcement techniques, and any time delays before targeted behavior. This technique improved studentís targeted performance from baseline scores from 11.7%, 2.7%, and 7.2% to scores of 52.2%, 38.8%, and 55.5 % after intervention.

Source

Hwang, B. & Hughes, C. (1995). Effects of social interactive strategies on early social-communicative skills of a preschool child with developmental disabilities. Education and Training in Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities, 30 (4), 336-349.

Developer

Mitzi M. Myers, East Tennessee State University


Target

Improving ability to match spoken and written names with their corresponding people

Participants

Three adult males who suffered acquired brain injuries or traumatic brain injuries

Technique

The ability to connect faces with their spoken and written names may be increased by using stimulus equivalence methods. Performances suggest that the dictated word, picture, printed word, and oral name for each person is equivalent. Before beginning the equivalence training, the trainer must prepare 4 types of stimuli to test and train relations among names and faces: (dictated names,faces--color photographs of head and shoulders, written names--in participants handwriting, and nameplates (color photographs of nameplates on office doors). Pictures should be mounted and laminated on cards (10cm by 15cm). A pretest-train-posttest sequence should be followed with each participant. Sessions should be conducted in a room with a desk and two chairs. The trainer sits on one side of the desk opposite the student. Sessions should only last 30 to 50 minutes, depending on the age of the student. The trainer begins each session with the same words, "I am going to put a picture or a printed name on the board. Please listen to the word then point to the picture or word that goes with it." The student then points to the picture or word on the desktop that matches the word written on the board. The trainer arranges the stimuli (words or photographs) on a cardboard mat out of the students sight before presenting the next picture or word. The student should be given 24 - 36 pictures or names to match at each session. After every correct response the trainer should provide verbal praise. When the student makes an incorrect response he should be instructed to try again. This should be repeated until the correct response is given. If verbal praise is not an effective reinforcer the trainer should consult personnel close to the student to find a more effective form of reinforcement (e.g.ice-cream, card games, etc...).

Evaluation

Observations should be charted and graphed to reflect student progress.Posttest performances represented dramatic improvements over baseline.

Source

Cowley,B.J., Green,G., (1992). Using stimulus equivalence procedures to teach name-face matching to adults with brain injuries. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis,25,461-475.

Developer

Sharon B. Mueller, ETSU


Target

improving communication

Participant

nine residents of a state residential facility for the developmentally disabled; five with mental retardation, 4 with autism

Technique

Using incidental teaching-type procedures, a variety of activities were incorporated into the daily routine in an attempt to increase resident signing. Indeed was procedures for staff to prompt resident interactions, specifically and frequently, as opposed to waiting for the resident initiate an interaction, Three general types of activities were implemented simultaneously: (a) change physical environment to prompt signing, (b) altering routine staff-resident interactions to prompt, manually guide, and/or reinforce resident signing, and (c) conducting mini-training sessions. Throughout all activities, a simultaneous communication approach was used in the staff verbalized what they were signing to the residents.

Changing the environment involved a "reinforcer display" shelf or table on which objects of a predicted reinforcing value to the residents could be traced. The objects could be seen by the residents but could not be reached by them without help from a staff member. When the objects were displayed on the shelf and a resident approached the shelf or a staff member, the staff person waited approximately 5 seconds for the residents to sign that he/she wanted an item. If the resident did not provide a sign within the approximate 5 seconds, the staff member asked the resident one or more questions. If a resident responded to a question with a relevant sign, the staff member praised the resident and presented the object if the resident had signed that he/she wanted it. If a resident did not repond to a specific question with a relevant sign, the staff member manually guided the resident in forming a sign while verbally labeling the actions.

With the procedures of altering routine staff-resident interactions to prompt, manually guide, and/or reinforce resident signing, staff incorporated signing within their usual interactions with residents. For instance, as an example of a prompting activity, when it appeared that a resident wanted something such as pointing to a water fountain, the staff member modeled the sign for "drink" and /or requested that the resident show the sign for "drink." If the resident did not sign"drink.: or another relevant sign, within 5 seconds, the staff member manually guided the resident's hand(s) in forming the sign, Following the signing behavior of the resident, whether or not it was manually guided, the staff member attempted to reinforce the signing by proving access to the object and praising the resident's signing, Similar prompt, manual guidance and reinforcement sequences where incorporated into other types of interactions including mealtimes.

The third general type of training activity was mini-training sessions. Intermittently during the day, a staff member conducted brief, 3-5 minute, training activities with he residents. Within each session, and object identified by a target sign was selected and several questions about the object were presented that could be answered with a target sign, For every question asked, the prompt manual guidance , reinforcement sequence was used a described previously.

Evaluation

Each resident was observed for three consecutive 1-minute intervals during which the observer recorded the occurrence of target behavior (signing, physically prompted signing, nonphysically prompted sighing. and/or vocalization).

Observations indicated that significant increases in signing occurred for all participants . And the increases generally maintained during follow-up checks at 5 and 17 weeks.

Source

Schepis, M.M, Reid, D.H., Fitzgerald, J.R., Faw, G.D., Van Den Pol, R.A., & Welty P.A. (1982). A program for increasing manual signing by autistic and profoundly retarded youth within the daily environment. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 15, 363-379.

Developer

Ronnie Sue Hall, ETSU


Target

increase conversation

Participant

three teenage males with autism

Technique

During the first session a facilitator would read a short story, then the facilitator would asked the subject if he had any questions. If a discussion was approached the facilitator would continue it, if not there would be a prompt. During this time the subject was being reinforced with tokens which at the end of the session could be used to do a favored activity.

The next session was done in the same fashion except that the students were taught to take a token themselves if the correct response was give. This was prompted at first, but then the child was only given the tokens in which they remembered to take. When a token was taken on an incorrect response this was not considered self-reinforcement. All tokens gained resorted in trading for a favored activity.

The next baseline was the same except that all tokens were given at the end of the session, and the next self -reinforcement was totally up to the individual.

Evaluation

Data was collected on whether or not the appropriate answer was given, interruptions were made, presence of prompts and irrelevant jokes made. They then calculated the percentages. An immediate increase was seen in each child's conversation skills when self-reinforcement was practiced.

Source

Newman, B., Buffington, D. M., & Hemmes, N, S. (1996). Self-reinforcement used to increase the appropriate conversation of Autistic teenagers. Education and Training in Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities, Vol. ? 304-309.

Developer

Lori Duncan, ETSU


Target

increase requesting

Participant

Five adult males with mental retardation and 1 adult male with autism in a group home

Technique

Study group was divided into three pairs for research. Each pair consisted of a tutor and a tutee. Tutors were determined by I. Q. scores, daily living functional skills, social interaction with other residents, and rates of verbalizations. Although one selected tutor had a substantially lower I.Q. that some of the tutees, it was determined that he had higher socialization skills than did some of the others. Peer-tutors were first trained by staff members during daily lunch making process. Staff members would model behavior and prompt verbal responses. After a few sessions, the peer-tutors were paired with their partner during the lunch making process. Peer-tutors would wait for a verbal request such as "ham, please" or would prompt a verbal response by moving desired object out of reach or sight when tutee pointed or tried to pick up desired object. If tutee did not respond with verbalization, peer-tutor would model behavior along with appropriate verbal response. Desired object was withheld until appropriate response was made. Praise along with desired object was given for appropriate behavior or response.

Evaluation

Researchers evaluated progress of both peer-tutors and tutees by documenting the number of interactions during the lunch making process where incidental teaching was taking place, as well as during the evening meal where incidental teaching was not required to taught. During 5 minute samples, observations were recorded for the number of times peer tutors used incidental teaching and the number of times tutees verbalized during the dinner. Observations concluded that verbalization increased after incidental teaching and peer-tutoring from a range of 0 - 1 before incidental teaching and peer tutoring to a range of 6 to 11 after incidental teaching and peer tutoring.

Source

Farmer-Dougan, V. (1994). Increasing request by adults with developmental disabilities using incidental teaching by peers. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, Vol. 27, 533-543.

Developer

Sherry J. Grubb, ETSU


Target

Initiating requests for information

Participants

Four nonspeaking children with developmental delays who ranged in age from 5:4 to 6:10 years and were diagnosed as having mild to moderate levels of mental retardation

Technique

In this study, a pragmatic teaching strategy based on environment teaching and time-delay procedures was developed and embedded in naturally structured communication tasks to evoke information request. Time delay is a procedure that teaches children to initiate and respond to appropriate contextual cues where as, milieu, or environmental teaching, takes advantage of naturally arising opportunities. The three information request types that were target for training were: who, what, and where.

Before the study could began, modifications to the communication boards were necessary. Three information request types including Who (persons), What (objects), and Where (locations) were affixed to the subject's communications boards.

The pragmatic teaching strategy has five steps. In the first step the trainer presents a linguistic cue (e.g., "Someone's coming to the door.") followed by a 10 second delay in which the trainer maintained an inquisitive facial expression. If the subject independently pointed to the appropriate request symbol (i.e., who) on his board within the time delay, the trainer scored the behavior as an initiated request. However, if the subject failed to produce an initiated request, the trainer proceeded to the next step in sequence. In the second step, the trainer repeated the cue along with the 10s delay and added the first prompt condition in which the trainer modeled the response (i.e., pointed to who on the board). If the subject pointed to the symbol to request information within 10s following the board model, the trainer scored the behavior as an initiated request. If the subject did not respond to the board model, training could advance through the remaining steps (i.e., Steps 3, 4, and 5), or prompt conditions, until a request for information was made. However, for this study, it was not necessary to go beyond step 2 for any subject. In the third step, the trainer could use a verbal model (i.e., "Show me WHAT.") In the fourth step, the trainer could use an imitative prompt (i.e., Points to symbol and says "Show me WHAT.") In the last step, the trainer can use a physical prompt (i.e., Show me "WHAT." and physically guide the subject to the symbol).

Evaluation

Four behaviors were calculated as percentages: an initiated request, an incorrect request, a nonboard request, or a no response. Scores during baseline, pragmatic training, maintenance and review sessions were charted for each participant.

Source

Angelo, D.H., & Goldstein, H. (1990). Effects of a pragmatic teaching strategy for requesting information by communication board users. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 55, 231-243.

Developer

Jodie L. Hamilton, ETSU