Improve or increase social skills
Three high school students with mental retardation
Students were taught to play a game called Stacking the Deck. It is a board game that provides activities for teaching six social skill areas: compliment, politeness, social interaction, criticism, social confrontation, and questions and answers. Each skill area has cards with different social situations written on them. Students are given the chance to respond to all 48 cards, when it is their turn. There are four sessions and a facilitator stacks the deck each day to ensure that students will receive a different set of 12 cards for each of the social skill areas. The facilitator models the correct response each time he or she answers a question. If students respond correctly, they get to move their game piece on the board.
Facilitator calculates the total number of correct and incorrect responses for each of the six social skill areas taught
Clees, T., Langone, J., Malone, M., Oxford, M., & Ross, G.(1995). Acquisition and generalization of social skills by high school students with mild mental retardation. Mental Retardation, 33, 186-196.
Lori Sanders, ETSU
Improve community dining skills
Three high school students with severe physical and mental disabilities
Students were introduced to the Reaching for Independence and Self-Confidence Project that is designed to identify, implement, and evaluate a variety of approaches that schools can use to help enhance self-determination of students with disabilities. Here they were paired with assistants or their mothers that were trained to help in this process. Students were observed at McDonalds and Burger King. Each pair went to fast food restaurants in the same manner that they usually did and each pair was given $10 per visit. A list of strategies was planned for how each student could most independently order, eat, and clean up after themselves. Instructors at school met with each student individually in the classroom and used task analysis to teach the students to perform the steps. The instructors first modeled the steps, second the students performed the steps with prompts, and third the students performed the steps independently. The mothers or assistants were coached through the routine, and they were given the step list for their child and six rules for assisting and encouraging the students. Four weekly visits were made to the restaurants(2 Burger King & 2 McDonalds) following the training session. Six weeks after the last four visits, they went to each restaurant once at a designated time to end the project.
Teacher counts the total number of steps each child performed with assistance and the steps performed independently
Powers, L., & Sowers, J. (1995). Enhancing the participation and independence of students with severe physical and mental disabilities in performing community activities. Mental Retardation, 33, 209-220.
Lori Sanders, ETSU