Target

increase assignments completed

Participants

two eleven year old boys who were in the fifth grade and had been diagnosed with emotional handicaps

Technique

There were two choice phases which included English and spelling from which the boys had to make decisions. A menu was posted on the board that went along with a particular topic, and the child could choose their own assignment.

At times, choice making was not an option, and researchers viewed the behavioral problems and frustrations the boys experienced when being told what to do.

Evaluation

The choice making options were associated with very high and calm levels of task management. There was also a lower level of disruptive behavior when choice making was permitted. This percentage increased when the students were told what assignments to do. More work was completed by both boys when options were given.

Source

Clarke, S., DePerczel, M., Dunlap, G., Gomez, A., White, R., Wilson, D., & Wright, S. (Fall 1994). Choice making to promote adaptive behavior for students with emotional and behavioral challenges. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 3, 505-510.

Developer

Ann Carter, ETSU


Target

Increasing cooperative interaction and academic performance

Participants

18 third grade boys described as underachieving and hyperactive

Technique

Students who are hyperactive and underachieving may improve their relationships with peers and their academic performance through the use of a token system. Begin by separating assignments, such as vocabulary and reading, into ten units per level. Keep the assignments in a designated place. Students enter class, pull their individual file folder to see what assignment is to be worked on, locates the assignment, and checks a wall chart to identify another student who has already mastered that unit. The students work together on the first activity in the unit, one acting as peer tutor and the other as learner. When a student masters the lesson, he goes to the teacher, who quizzes him. If he passes, he receives a green wrist token and checks the wall chart to find a student who needs help with the same lesson. Peer tutors of students who master a lesson receive a yellow wrist token. The second lesson in the unit involves putting the newly learned vocabulary into sentences, again with the assistance of a peer tutor. Each receive a different colored wrist token upon successful completion. The two levels of difficulty, vocabulary and sentences, represent one unit for which a total of four tokens can be earned. The four appropriately colored tokens can be traded for 15 minutes of play on an electronic game. When a student successfully completes all 10 units of a level and passes an achievement test, he is reinforced by earning additional time on another electronic game.

Evaluation

Progress is recorded in individuals' file folders and on a wall chart. Out of seat behavior is not eliminated, but serves a functional purpose.

Source

Robinson, P. W., Newby, T. J., & Ganzell, S. L. (1981). A token system for a class of underachieving hyperactive children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 14, 307-15.

Developer

Karen Dayton, ETSU


Target

Increasing on-task behavior during assignments

Participant

Two boys, ages 9 & 12, with severe behavior disorders

Technique

Both boys were given math worksheets with either all easy problems or all hard problems. These worksheets were identical in appearance with the exception of the difficulty of the problems. The boys were told to work on the problems for ten minutes. The administrator gave the boys praise every three minutes for either being on task or staying seated if not actually working. The boys were allowed to choose an item for participating in the session.

Evaluation

They calculated the percentage of time on task, time in disruptions, and rate per minute of disruptive behavior during both the easy and hard problems. Both boys average rate per minute of disruptive behavior was more than double during the hard problems than the easy problems.

Source

Depaepe, P.A., Jack, S.L., & Shores, R.E. (1996). Effects of task difficulty on the disruptive and on-task behavior of students with severe behavior disorders. The Journal of Behavioral Disorders, Vol. ?, 216-224.

Developer

Latasia Hawkins, ETSU


Target

increasing positive behavior

Participants

one second grade student with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

Technique

Positive behavior during in-class academic work in ADHD students may be increased by giving the students a choice in the assignment that they are to complete. The assignments should be identical in length and degree of difficulty and should vary in content. Students should never receive the same choice of assignments twice. A teacher may give students a choice of worksheets that include spelling lists, grammar and punctuation exercises, and silent reading assignments.

Evaluation

Observe students' positive and negative behaviors when they are given a no-choice assignment and when they are given a choice in the assignment that they are to complete in class. When given a choice of assignments to complete, the second grader being observed displayed undesirable behavior in class between intervals of roughly 31% and 87% of the time. When the student was given no choice in the assignment (that is, performing the same assignment as the rest of the class), the undesirable behavior decreased to between 10% and 35% of the time. This research was compiled over a twenty day period.

Source

Powell, S. & Nelson, B. (1997). Effects of choosing academic assignments on a student with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 30, 181- 183.

Developer

Nicholas R. Wilson, ETSU


Target

Increasing task independence

Participants

Students with mild intellectual disabilities ages two and up

Technique

Verbal self-regulation is used to increase task independence through self-instructional training. The goal is to complete a task without the use of external instruction such as checklist or verbal prompting. Classroom instruction as well as hands on instruction are used to teach this skill. The participant is taught four self-instruction statements: state the problem, state the correct response, report the response, and self-acknowledgement (i.e., "I need to complete this math problem.", " Work this math problem.", "I am working this math problem.", "Good job."). While performing a particular task the participant is asked: "What do you do now?", "How do you do that?", "What have you just done?", and "How does it make you feel?". These four statements coincide with the participant's four self-instruction statements. Using a least-to-most prompting strategy, the trainer may use an indirect verbal prompt (i.e., "What do you do next?"), a direct verbal prompt ("open your book to page 3") or model the task. Until the participant is able to use the four statements fluently they should be repeated with each task. Use these steps in a verbal setting until fluency is reached and proceed to a hands on setting. Using a task analysis checklist, the participant works through a given task by asking them self the four self instruction statements. This is done just like it was in the classroom but now the participant is using the skills while they actually perform the task. The trainer gives the least amount of prompting possible to produce the desired performance. The hands-on portion of this should be done at least three times a week. Once this skill is mastered the participant is placed in the same hands on setting without a task analysis checklist and given a task to perform. The trainer prompts the participant through a task by using the four self-instructional statements used in the classroom. Mastery is accomplished when the participant is able to complete the given task without verbal prompting from the instructor.

Evaluation

Documentation of behavior response may be calculated by making a separate task analysis checklist and marking the correct response behavior of the participant. This may be monitored by the participant or the instructor. A percentage may be found by dividing the number of correct behavior response by the total behaviors performed.

Source

Taylor, I.,& O'Reilly, M.F. (1997). Toward a functional analysis of private verbal self-regulation. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 30, 43-58.

Developer

Melissa McVey, East Tennessee State University


 

Target

To increase academic productivity and develop self-control skills

Participants

Students from an alternative high school (where students have a great deal of latitude) who had experienced low-lesson completion and overall school failure

Technique

Academic target areas were reading, math, and writing. Based on preassessments, students were told where they would begin in each area, and they were taught how to use the instructional materials associated with the target areas.

They were told how to: (a) obtain the materials independently; (b) complete the lessons; (c) score completed assignments using the answer keys; (d) hand-in the assignments; and (e) review and place the assignments in their notebooks. The procedure was modeled for the students.

Feedback was provided on the procedures each student followed as well as on the lessons. The students were told to complete as many lessons as possible each day in each area and encouraged to complete at least one lesson in each area each day. Students were assisted whenever they asked for help, but they were never prompted to complete lessons.

Evaluation

Student progress was monitored by way of individual conferences of approximately ten minutes, held once a week. In the initial conference, students were taught four skills: (1) Self-contracting (which included academic goal setting, task analysis of the required behaviors to meet a particular goal, and specification of contingencies); (2) self-recording of behavior; (3) self-evaluation; and (4) self-reinforcemnt.

Each of these skills was taught using a series of instructional procedures including: (a) a description of the skill and rationales for using the skill; (b) demonstration of the skill by the teacher; (c) practice of the skill by the student; and (d) positive and corrective feedback. Copies of worksheets and record sheets for each skill were provided.

Source

Seabaugh, G. O., & Schumaker, J. B. (1994). The effects of self-regulation training on the academic productivity of secondary students with learning problems. Journal of Behavioral Education, 4, 109-133.

Developer

Brenda E. Fogus, UVA