Target

Decreasing serious and dangerous behaviors

Participants

156 students enrolled in a special education facility, all of which were classified as emotionally disturbed

Technique

The study occurred over the duration of 1 school year. Students in this special education facility were divided into a Lower School, consisting of grades K-6, and an Upper School, consisting of grades 7-12. Parents were made aware of the number of timeouts their child was experiencing. In the Lower School, a behavior chart indicating the number of incidents of timeout went home with each student weekly. In the Upper School, the number of incidents was included on each report card. Procedural safeguards were in place to monitor the use of the timeout facility. Administrators were automatically involved with students in Lower School with more than 30 minutes of timeout per day and with students in Upper School with more than 60 minutes of timeout in a single day. A point system for positive reinforcement of appropriate behavior was used. Points were awarded for appropriate behavior within set time intervals that varied with age and level of classroom. For most behaviors timeouts occurred following the third infraction of the same rule during a single time period. However, serious or dangerous behaviors were immediately followed by in timeout. Students were sent to the timeout room for periods from 5 to 30 minutes in 5-min intervals, for a total of 60 minutes, or "until bus." A 5-min interval was standard for all but the most serious first offenses of the day. After students reached the timeout area, the timeout period started only after the student's behavior was deemed to be appropriate. If behavior again deteriorated, additional time was added. Two trained teachers' assistants were in the timeout room at all times. After the students completed the timeout period, they returned to their classrooms with the expectation that they were ready to control their own behavior and resume work. No further discussion of the offense took place.

Evaluation

Over the academic year, 12,992 separate incidents were recorded. There was an average of 74 incidents per day. The average time per incident of timeout was 16.36 min, due to additional time being added. Students with emotional disturbance spent on average, approximately 23 hr per year in the timeout room.

Source

Costenbader, V, & Reading-Brown, M. (1995). Isolation timeout used with students with emotional disturbance. Exceptional Children, 15 (#2), 353-362.

Developer

Mark Revis, ETSU


Target

Reducing aggressive and disruptive behavior

Participants

Two individuals (one male and one female) with mental retardation

Technique

Brief time-out for disruptive and aggressive behaviors and reinforcement for appropriate behaviors was used with two individuals with mental retardation in a state hospital ward setting. The procedures reduced loud vocal behavior in one patient and aggressive behavior in another to near-zero levels when first applied. The behaviors returned to previous levels when the procedures were removed and were again greatly reduced when time-out and reinforcement were reapplied. Ruth B. exhibited loud and abusive verbal behavior. Loud vocal responses were measured by a voice-operated portable tape recorder. Stopwatches were used to measure the length of the session, length of time-outs, and time between reinforcers. During the baseline condition, a tranquilizing drug (Prolixin Enanthate) was prescribed by the ward physician in an attempt to reduce Ruth' s vocalizations. The decrease in behavior was temporary. The reinforcement schedule was progressive in that if she was quiet for 5 minutes a reinforcer was delivered, then after 10 minutes of quietness, a reinforcer was delivered until a maximum of 30 minutes was achieved. The time-out procedure was implemented if the voice-operated computer was activated during the day. Time-out consisted of the experimenter wheeling her to a nearby corner of the day room, taking her out of her chair, and placing her on the floor for approximately 10 seconds. Dennis M. exhibited aggressive behavior (hitting, kicking, biting, scratching, and head butting). Just before the baseline session a tranquilizer (Navane) was given with only minimal effects. . Reinforcers included milk, cookies, and carbonated drinks and a time-out booth was used for the time-out procedure. Each time an aggressive behavior occurred, he was quickly picked up and placed into the time-out booth for less than 5 seconds.

Evaluation

After waiting a period of time (after medication was non-existent), Ruth B.'s baseline was recorded with an average of 86 vocalizations per session. After the time-out and reinforcement condition was instituted, vocalizations were 0. After returning to baseline, verbalizations were 79. Dennis M. results indicated that during the baseline session the number of aggressive responses varied for 4 to 57. During the intervention phase, using reinforcement of appropriate behavior and time-out, aggressive behaviors decreased to 0 at the last session.

Source

Bostow, D.E. & Bailey, J. (1969). Modification of severe disruptive and aggressive behavior using brief time-out and reinforcement procedures. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 2, 31-37.

Developer

Christopher L. Darnell, ETSU


Target

decreasing aggressive behavior

Participant

48 eighth and ninth grade males

Technique

Forty-two students who were chosen were assigned to two-counselor-led assertive training groups. One group peer-led discussion group, one counselor-led discussion group, and one no-treatment control group was used to counsel the students. The peer-led group and professional counselors were instructed to adhere strictly to the structured training outlines in leading the experimental and comparison groups. The leaders used a reflective approach and focused on themes such as anger, rules, and revenge. The remaining six subjects were randomly assigned to the three comparison groups. There were six subjects in each assertive training group and eight subjects in each comparison group. All of the subjects were tested on four measures: assertive skill level, anger level, a projective measure of aggression, and a classroom assessment of aggressive behavior. The counselors received eight hours of training and experienced the same training program they would later colead with the experimental students.

Evaluation

The projective measure of aggression was scored by two psychologist, and the classroom aggression was rated by classroom teachers. Assertiveness was video taped and measured by points: 3 points=assertive, 2 points=passive, and 1 point=aggressive. The anger level was measured by the Anger Index which consisted of eight 10-point rating scales with responses ranging from not angry to very angry. The Acting-Out Subscale of the Walker-Problem Behavior Identification Checklist was used to measure each of the subjects classroom aggressive behavior. The counselor training by both professional and peer counselors are very effective in teaching assertion skills. As a result of the assertion training by the counselors the students became less aggressive.

Source

Huey, W.C., & Rank, R.C. (1984). Effects of counselor and peer-led group assertive training on black adolescent aggression. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 31, 95-98.

Developer

Karen Palmer, ETSU


Target

reducing aggression

Participant

Ninety 14 year old students, 43-male and 47-female

Technique

Adolescents were screened for behavior displayed in a variety of interpersonal situations withteachers. Using plus or minus checkmarks teachers observed and rated all ninth-grade students in relation to their classmates for behavior displayed in typical student/teacher interactions. The ratings were later transformed to numerical equivalents. The students met requirements for screening if they received consistent ratings by at least two of the four teachers. The students who met the requirements received SLT(structural learning training) according to the type of training needed. Using the SLT treatment the students improved their aggressive behavior. The groups of students received three 55-minute sessions of audiotaped and live modeling, rehearsal, feedback with social reinforcement, and between-sessions practice of assertive behavior with teachers. Each group was taught by three trained individuals rotated in male-female pairs across each session.

Evaluation

The teacher used plus and minus checkmarks to rate the students after observing them in relation to their behavior with the other classmates. Rotter's Internal-External Locus of Control Scale was administered to the students at pretest to assess the possible relationship between locus of control, type of participant, and behavior change.

Source

Pentz, M. (1980). Assertion training and trainer effects on unassertive and aggressive adolescents. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 27, 76-83.

Developer

Karen Palmer, ETSU


Target

Decreasing arguing, hitting, yelling, running away

Participants

Two female students with severe disabilities

Technique

Problem behaviors, such as arguing, hitting, yelling, and running away may be decreased by eliminating preceding setting events occurring prior to school. A preceding setting event in one which occurs prior to the problem behavior being observed.To determine the presence of these, data were collected by a classroom teacher and two assistants. These were obtained from functional analysis of behavior throughout the school day. A setting event functional assessment (a diagnostic look at events leading up to the problem behaviors and the analysis of the purpose of the behaviors) was also compiled and included review of students' medical and educational records, interviews and direct observations. During baseline phases, setting events were allowed to occur naturally. In the intervention phase, the setting event was purposefully not allowed to occur. This was done through behavior management systems and through changes in the students morning routines.

Evaluation

Data were collected as to number of problem behaviors occurring in the presence of the preceding setting even and in its absence. The data were collected from 23 to 29 days and was continued over a period of 2.5 months. When the preceding setting event did not occur, problem behaviors decreased. At the 2.5 month follow-up, problem behaviors occurred at frequencies of 0.7 to 1 per day in the absence of the preceding setting event.

Source

Kennedy, C.H., Itkonen, T. (1993). Effects of setting events on the problem behavior of students with severe disabilities. Journal Of Applied Behavior Analysis, 26, 321-327.

Developer

Betty Chalkley, ETSU


Target

reducing aggressive behaviors

Participants

twenty four aggressive and twelve non-aggressive males in grades three though five

Technique

The experimental group in this study participated in Attribution Retraining. This program helped train the students to detect intentions of others through verbal and behavioral cues. As part of this program, the students participated in the BrainPower Program. This program was designed to help students differentiate between deliberate and unintentional behaviors of other peers. Students role played five different scenarios each with a different outcome. One of each of the scenarios, accidental, hostile, prosocial, and two ambiguous intent, were role played by each student. Afterward, they were asked a series of questions to determine if they thought the event that happened in the scenario would have made them mad had it really happened. After the scenario, they brainstormed possible causes to each scenario and selected the one that appeared to be the most reasonable.

Evaluation

Prior to the intervention training and again at the completion, three pieces of data were collected: response to the scenarios, teachers ratings of how aggressive each of the participants were, and a report of how many times each of the participants were sent to the office for discipline. After a four month period, the aggressive participants showed a marked reduction in the way they perceived and reacted to peer provocation in the scenarios. They were also rated less aggressive by their teachers and were less likely to be sent to the office for discipline.

Source

Hudley, C. A. (1992). The reduction of peer directed aggression among highly aggressive African-American boys. University of California, Los Angeles. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Francisco. ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED346204.

Developer

Leanne Whitson Crawford, ETSU