History of Special Education

This data base was created by Mei-Shu Wu, Ying-Chin Chen, and Karen M. Tracey.


The history data base is out of order at this time (September 2002). We hope to get it working again, but it's not likely to be soon. Please check again. Meanwhile, please consult the sources we used in creating the data base. (You may also consult JohnL's timeline about learning disabilities.


In preparing the data base of historical events in special education, we consulted the sources listed here. For further and richer information, please consult the sources. Also, look for more recent editions of many of these volumes.

Ballard, J., Ramirez, B. A., & Weintraub, F. J. (1982). Special education in America: Its legal and governmental foundations. Reston, VA: The Council for Exceptional Children.

Bender, W. N. (1995). Learning disabilities: Characteristics, identification, and teaching strategies (2nd ed.). Needham Height, Mass: Simon & Schuster.

Beukelman, D. R., & Mirenda, P. (1992). Augmentative and alternative communication: Management of severe communication disorders in children and adults. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.

Blackhurst, A. E. & Berdine, W. H. (1993). An introduction to special education (3rd ed.). New York, NY: HarperCollins College Publishers.

Cartwright, G. P., Cartwright, C. A., & Ward, M. E. (1989). Educating special learners (3rd ed.). Belmont, California: Wadsworth.

Gearheart, B., Mullen, R. C., & Gearheart, C. (1993). Exceptional individuals: An introduction. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company.

Haring, N. G., McCormick, L., & Haring, T. G. (1994). Exceptional children and youth: An introduction to special education (6th ed.). New York, NY: Macmillan College Publishing.

Heward W. L., & Orlansky, M. D. (1984). Exceptional children (2nd ed.). Columbus, OH: Merrill.

Hewett F. M., & Forness S. R. (1984). Education of exceptional learners (3rd ed.). Newton, Massachusetts: Allyn & Bacon, Inc.

Hickson, L., Blackman, L. S., & Reis, E. M. (1995). Mental retardation: Foundations of educational programming. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

Kauffman, J. M. (1993). Characteristics of emotional and behavioral disorders of children and youth (5th ed.). Columbus, OH: Merrill.

Lloyd, J. W., Singh, N. N., & Repp, A. C. (1991). The regular education initiative: Alternative perspectives on concepts, issues, and models. Sycamore, IL: Sycamore.

Sigmon, S. B. (1987). Radical analysis of special wducation: Focus on historical development and learning disabilities. Philadelphia, PA: The Falmer Press.

Smith, D. D., & Luckasson R. (1995). Introduction to special education: Teaching in an age of challenge (2nd ed.). Needham Heights, MA: Simon & Schuster.

Taylor, R. L., & Sternberg, L. (1989). Exceptional children: Integrating research and teaching. New York, NY: Springer-Verlag.

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